This is possible but you'll have to create a new widget for non-product listing pages.
Filters are meant to filter the current list of products on the page. So, typically filters don't appear when there are no products being listed.
So to get what you want you should duplicate your price filter and change your links from something like this:
[server.url type='fullpage' query='price=-150']
To something like this:
[server.url type='fullpage' query='view=search&price=-150']
That will send the user to the search results page with the price filtering.
I've outlined in this thread how to use the Widget Context plugin to show different widgets on different pages. http://www.datafeedr.com/forums/showthread.php?t=3853